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A Toolbook for Quality Improvement and Problem Solving (contents)

Tools for the Cause stage

The Quality Toolbook > Tool Finder > Starting from the project framework > Tools for the Define stage

Identify | Define | Problem | Cause | Solution | Implement | Review | Follow-up

 

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This section identifies tools which may be used in the Cause stage of the project framework for the following activities:

  1. Identifying possible causes of the problem.
  2. Selection of key causes to address.
  3. Determining measures to verify identified key causes.
  4. Designing experiments to verify key causes.
  5. Measuring the process to verify that causes are key, as suspected.

 

  1. Identifying possible causes of the problem.
  • Use the Cause-Effect Diagram to identify possible causes of a known effect.
  • Use a Relations Diagram where there are complex relationships.
  • Use Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) to help find why systems have failed.
     
    1. Selection of key causes to address.
  • Use a Prioritization Matrix or Voting to select key causes for further investigation.
  • Use the Force-Field Diagram to resolve for-and-against decisions.
     
    1. Determining measures to verify identified key causes.
  • If measures are not clear, use Brainstorming or Nominal Group Technique (NGT) to help identify them.
     
    1. Designing experiments to verify key causes.
  • Use a Scatter Diagram to investigate uncertain relationships.
  • Use a Survey or the Nominal Group Technique (NGT) to gather information from people.
  • Use Design of Experiments for deeper investigations.
    1. Measuring the process to verify that causes are key, as suspected.
  • Use a Check Sheet or Tables to gather numerical data.
  • Use a Survey to gather data from groups of people.
  • Display results in a Line Graph, Pareto Chart or Bar Chart.
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